Sexual Harassment in International Law
Keywords:Sexual Harassment, Global Protection, International Law
AbstractSexual harassment within the realm of international law is a multifaceted and intricate matter, impacting numerous individuals worldwide annually. This article seeks to examine and assess the difficulties and potential advancements in safeguarding those affected by sexual violence on a global scale. By conducting a comprehensive examination of diverse international legal instruments, such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Convention on Human Rights, various regional agreements, and UN resolutions, the authors highlight the pivotal role that international organizations play in combatting sexual harassment. The article also underscores the legal enforcement challenges and the accountability of sexual harassment perpetrators at the international level. The lack of uniformity in the definition and punishment of sexual misconduct across different countries, along with restrictions on victims' access to the legal system, pose hindrances to effectively addressing this issue. Nonetheless, despite these obstacles, the article presents optimistic prospects concerning the advocacy efforts of civil society and the growing global awareness of the problem of sexual harassment. In transcending national borders, international initiatives aimed at addressing sexual harassment are gaining increasing significance to establish a safe and violence-free global environment.
Akram, N., & Yasmin, M. (2023). Sexual violence against women: Global interventions and evidence from Pakistan. Women’s Studies International Forum, 97. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.WSIF.2023.102691
Broache, M. P., & Kore, J. (2023). Can the International Criminal Court prevent sexual violence in armed conflict? Journal of Human Rights, 22(1), 78–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/14754835.2022.2150517
Carballo Piñeiro, L., & Kitada, M. (2020). Sexual harassment and women seafarers: The role of laws and policies to ensure occupational safety & health. Marine Policy, 117. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MARPOL.2020.103938
Cheek, N. N., Bandt-Law, B., & Sinclair, S. (2023). People believe sexual harassment and domestic violence are less harmful for women in poverty. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 107. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JESP.2023.104472
Chowdhury, R., & Fileborn, B. (2020). “Break the Silence Bangladesh”: Examining “everyday” experiences of sexual violence through online activism. Women’s Studies International Forum, 81. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.WSIF.2020.102379
DeKeseredy, W. S., Rennison, C. M., & Hall-Sanchez, A. K. (2018). The Routledge International handbook of violence studies. Routledge.
Drewett, C., Oxlad, M., & Augoustinos, M. (2021). Breaking the silence on sexual harassment and assault: An analysis of #MeToo tweets. Computers in Human Behavior, 123. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CHB.2021.106896
García Iommi, L. (2023). Nothing changed after Rome: Continuity in state support for the International Criminal Court. Journal of Human Rights, 22(1), 16–30. https://doi.org/10.1080/14754835.2022.2157206
Gorissen, M., van den Berg, C. J., Ruiter, S., & Bijleveld, C. C. (2023). Sharing unwanted sexual experiences online: A cross-platform analysis of disclosures before, during and after the #MeToo movement. Computers in Human Behavior, 144. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CHB.2023.107724
Hofisi, S. (2023). Combating Impunity: examining amicus curiae, the International Criminal Court, and accountability for conflct-related sexual violence in the ongoing Ukraine conflict. https://www.doria.fi/handle/10024/187315
Issa, F. Al, Affilia, E. B.-, & 2021, undefined. (2021). Sexual violence as a war weapon in conflict zones: Palestinian women’s experience visiting loved ones in prisons and jails. Journals.Sagepub.Com, 36(2), 167–181. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886109920978618
Jonsdottir, S. D., Hauksdottir, A., Aspelund, T., Jakobsdottir, J., Runarsdottir, H., Gudmundsdottir, B., Tomasson, G., Valdimarsdottir, U. A., Halldorsdottir, T., & Thordardottir, E. B. (2022). Risk factors for workplace sexual harassment and violence among a national cohort of women in Iceland: a cross-sectional study. The Lancet Public Health, 7(9), e763–e774. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(22)00201-8
Kalume Misenga, J. C. (2020). Eliminating Violence against Women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: A new model for further implementation of United Nations Human Rights Standards.
L., L. C.-Sw. J. I., & 2011, undefined. (n.d.). The International Criminal Court in 2021. HeinOnline. Retrieved November 13, 2023, from https://heinonline.org/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/sjlta18§ion=20
McBride, B., Goldenberg, S. M., Murphy, A., Wu, S., Mo, M., Shannon, K., & Krüsi, A. (2022). Protection or police harassment? Impacts of punitive policing, discrimination, and racial profiling under end-demand laws among im/migrant sex workers in Metro Vancouver. SSM - Qualitative Research in Health, 2. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SSMQR.2022.100048
Nelmawarni, N., Kustati, M., … D. P.-… S. and, & 2021, undefined. (2021). Protection of Women from Cultural, Physical, and Sexual Violence in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Search.Proquest.Com. https://doi.org/10.18848/2324-7576/CGP
Noor, S., & Iamtrakul, P. (2023). Women’s access to urban public transport: Toward addressing policy constraints in combating sexual harassment. Transport Policy, 137, 14–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.TRANPOL.2023.04.010
Online, V. G.-I., & 2021, undefined. (2021). United Nations’s Role For Promotion And Protection Of Women’s Rights And Gender Equality On International Level. Ilkogretim-Online.Org, 20(6), 2741–2753. https://doi.org/10.17051/ilkonline.2021.06.254
Research, M. S.-I. J. of Q., & 2022, undefined. (n.d.). Covid-19 and Violence against Women: An Analytical Study in the Context of Bangladesh. Ojs.Literacyinstitute.Org, 2(2), 93–103. https://doi.org/10.47540/ijqr.v2i2.461
Ringrose, J., Milne, B., Mishna, F., Regehr, K., & Slane, A. (2022). Young people’s experiences of image-based sexual harassment and abuse in England and Canada: Toward a feminist framing of technologically facilitated sexual violence. Women’s Studies International Forum, 93. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.WSIF.2022.102615
Roche, S., Otarra, C., Fell, I., Belle Torres, C., & Rees, S. (2023). Online sexual exploitation of children in the Philippines: A scoping review. Children and Youth Services Review, 148. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CHILDYOUTH.2023.106861
Rostami, F. (2021). An analysis of sexual harassment on Iranian campuses. International Journal of Educational Development, 87. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.IJEDUDEV.2021.102498
Roswell, L. (2021). Barriers to Access to Justice for Racialized and Economically Disadvantaged Women Victims of Sexual Violence: A Study of Indigenous Women in Canada. https://www.etd.ceu.edu/2021/roswell_lea.pdf
Schulz, P., Halperin-Kaddari, R., Rudolf, B., & Freeman, M. A. (2022). The UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women and its Optional Protocol: A Commentary. Oxford University Press.
Sil, A., Chowdhury, S., & Thoreau, R. (2023). Moving towards an inclusive public transport system for women in the South and Southeast Asian region. Transport Reviews, 43(6), 1144–1164. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2023.2200983
Zhong, L. R., Kebbell, M. R., & Webster, J. L. (2020). An exploratory study of technology-facilitated Sexual Violence in online romantic interactions: Can the Internet’s toxic disinhibition exacerbate sexual aggression? Computers in Human Behavior, 108. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CHB.2020.106314
Copyright (c) 2023 Diah Mutiara Dewi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.