Pattern of Substance Use and Suicide Probability in Poly-Drug Users
Keywords:poly-drug use disorder, suicidal thoughts, suicide probability scale, pattern of use
Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and suicidal probability among sample of patients with poly-substance use disorder, and to examine the relation between pattern of drug use and suicidal thoughts. Study design: cross sectional case control study. Place and duration of study: Inpatient words of psychiatric and surgery departments of Tanta General, and University hospitals, Egypt, from May 2015 to June 2019. Methodology: Participants were 220 subjects, aged 18-45 years. We reviewed 110 individuals who fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria of substance use disorder for three or more substances, and their data were compared with that collected from 110 control persons. Results: Suicidal cases are highly present among patients with poly-substance use disorder 25.45%. Most of suicidal cases started using illicit substances under effect of peer pressure. Tramadol and cannabis dominated the list of used substances (94.55%), (62.73%) respectively. A statistically significant association with suicidality was found with longer duration of substance use (p<0.001), using cannabis (p=0.014), alcohol (p<0.001) and volatile (p=0.02), using substances while alone (p<0.05), and positive history of accidental overdose (p<0.05). Suicidal cases showed significant higher scores (P <0.0001) of suicide probability scale and subscales. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that abusing certain substances for long duration while being alone, in addition to history of overdose may trigger suicidal thoughts in patients with poly-substance use disorder, and that suicide probability is common consequences of poly-substance abuse.
Kaminer Y, Oscar GB. Adolescent Substance Abuse: Psychiatric Comorbidity a21nd High-Risk Behaviors. Am J Psychiatry 2009; 166:117.
Richard N R. Managing Depressive Symptoms in Substance Abuse Clients During Early Recovery; A treatment improvement protocol series 48. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) 2008; 1(2): 08-4353.
Andijani N. Saudi Arabia; Suicide rate on the rise, Asharq Al-Awsat; available at: "http://www.aawsat.com/english/news.asp?section=1&id=1182"id=1182. Accessed on: February 18, 2008.
Salah SMY. A study on victims of self-inflicted injury referred to the emergency Department at Alexandria Main University Hospital, Master Degree Thesis in Emergency Medicine 2001; Alexandria University.
Chawla S. World drug report 2012, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). United Nations publication printed in Malta 2012; 1: 7-57.
Grohol JM. Personality traits differ between suicidal, nonsuicidal people with schizophrenia. Comprehensive psychiatry 2012; 12;6(1):30.
Soueif M I., Darweesh Z A., Hannourah M A., et al. The extent of drug use among Egyptian male university students. Drug and Alcohol dependence 1986; 18; 389, 403.
Fahmy MT. Heroin abuse, a study of its psychodemographic, and clinical aspects among Egyptian inpatients; MD Thesis in psychiatry 1989. Ain Shams University.
El beheery AR. Suicide Probability Scale, Anglo Egyptian Bookshop. 1992.
Park S., Cho S., Moon SS. Factors associated with suicidal ideation: Role of emotional and instrumental support. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2010; 389–397.
Felts M., Chenier T., Barnes R. Drug Use and Suicide Ideation and Behavior among North Carolina Public School Students. American Journal of Public Health 1992; 82 (6):870-872.
Salomon MM., Karim AN., Okasha TA., Agassi L., Mneimneh ZN., Karim EG. Epidemiologic Assessment of Substance Use in the Arab World. The Arab Journal of Psychiatry 2010; 21(1): 100- 126.
Singh A. Drug abuse among rural youth: A sociological study of Punjab. Sociology 2010; 1(9).
Abbas RA., Hammam RA., El-Gohary SS., Sabik LM., Hunter MS. Screening for common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate. Int J Occup Environ Med HYPERLINK "http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23279794" 2013; 4(1):13-26.
El-Sawy H., Abd Elhay M. Characteristics of substance dependence in adolescents with and without a history of trauma. Middle East Current Psychiatry 2011; 18:211–216.
Fawzi MM. Medico-legal aspects concerning Tramadol abuse. The new Middle East youth plague: An Egyptian overview 2010. J. Forensic Res 2011; 2:130. doi:10.4172/2157-7145.1000130.
Soueif M. Extent and patterns of drug use among students and working class men in Egypt. The National Center for Social and Criminological Research, Cairo, Egypt 1994; 94-123.
Ahmed RA. Psychological Profile and Prevalence of psychoactive Substance Use Among Suez Canal University Students in Ismailia. Master degree in neurology & psychiatry 2004. Faculty of medicine. Suez Canal University.
Qureshi NA., Al-Habeeb TA. Sociodemographic Parameters and clinical Patterns of drug abuse in Al-Qassim Region-Saudi Arabia. AJP. 2000; 11: 10-21.
El-Tantawy A., Rya Y., Al-Yahya A., El-Desoky I. Amphetamine Abuse among Patients with First Episode of Acute Psychosis. Current Psychiatry Journal 2010; 17(1): 73-81.
Sabry WM. Suicidal probability in heroin dependent individuals. Master Degree Thesis in neurology & psychiatry 2004. Faculty of medicine. Ain Shams University.
Landheim AS, Bakken K, Vaglum P. What Characterizes Substance Abusers Who Commit Suicide Attempts? Factors Related to Axis I Disorders and Patterns of Substance Use Disorders. A Study of Treatment-Seeking Substance Abusers in Norway. Eur Addict Res 2006 ;12:102-108.
Rutter P, Behrendt A. Adolescent suicide risk: four psychosocial factors. Adolescence 2004; 39(154):295-302.
Al-Sharqi AM., Sherra KS., Al-Habeeb AA., Qureshi NA. Suicidal and self-injurious behavior among patients with alcohol and drug abuse. Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation. Dovepress Journal 2012; 3(1): 91 – 99.
Kwok S., Shek D. Social problem solving, family functioning and suicidal ideation among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. Adolescence 2009; 44: 391–406.
Beck AT., Weissman A., Lester D., Trexler L. Classification of suicidal behaviours. II. Dimensions of suicidal intent. Archives of General Psychiatry 1976; 33: 835-837.
Beck AT., Steer RA., Kovacs M., Garrison G. Hopelessness and eventual suicide: a 10-year prospective study of patients hospitalized with suicidal ideation. Am J Psychiatry 1985; 142: 559-563.
Copyright (c) 2023 Amany A Baalash, Ibrahim H Othman, Mohammed A Osman
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.