Zahwa Assabilliyah Saputri^{1}, Subur Karyatun^{2}, Kumba Digdowiseiso^{3}*^{}
Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas National, Indonesia^{1,2,3}
Email: [email protected]^{1}, [email protected]^{2}, [email protected]^{3}*
The
development of the times has certainly occurred and cannot be avoided by all
humans from various parts of the world. Various kinds of positive and negative
impacts are also felt simultaneously, one example of positive and negative
impacts that are felt simultaneously, namely human resources are threatened to
no longer be needed, because all have been transferred using sophisticated
machines and tools and so on. With the positive impact given, namely making
time more effective and efficient at work, resulting in human resources will be
eliminated with sophisticated tools and machines.
However, if
everything is done using sophisticated equipment without any operation or
supervision from my human resources, it is undeniable that there must also be
technical errors that occur during the work. Therefore, human resources still
have to be needed to assist the operation and supervision of the course of
these sophisticated machines and tools in carrying out the tasks given.
Therefore, human resources are now required to know and study every thing that
happens in the development of the times both technologically and socially, in
order to adapt themselves in various kinds of advanced technological tools that
can help in terms of work and other interactions, where all of these things
have developed according to the times.
These human
resources are indeed very influential on the survival of a company. Where there
are factors that affect human resources, so that it will cause a diversity of
results from the level of performance of each employee. Therefore, it is
appropriate for a human resource to have high discipline and must have
competence, skills in general and specifically that can be an added value of a
human resource (HR) and can develop all talents and abilities in accordance
with the passion they have and the placement of the appropriate work
environment. By maximizing all abilities and upholding discipline in terms of
time and work accompanied by adequate technology will produce company
achievements according to plan.
It must also be
accompanied by a motivation for employees. According to Sedarmayanti (2017:
154), motivation is a force that drives someone to take an action or not which
in essence exists internally and externally positive or negarive, work
motivation is something that causes encouragement / work enthusiasm /
encouragement of work enthusiasm. Because if you continue to work accompanied
by a responsibility from each job that is carried out without any motivational
encouragement, it will also affect the psyche of an employee in facing a
pressure at work, by providing a motivation this will have a very good impact
on the performance of employees. So if this is done it will have a very good
impact on the achievement of each job assigned to employees.
According to
McClelland, translated by Suwanto (2020: 161), motivation is a set of forces
both from within and outside oneself that encourage them to start working
behavior according to a certain format, direction, intensity and time period.
The importance of this motivation has a small or large influence on each
employee that will have an impact on the running of a company. In addition, the
work environment and organizational culture must also be supportive, because if
you only rely on a motivation without being accompanied by the comfort of the
physical work environment and organizational culture, it will also not be balanced. This will cause an unwanted
event, so that it will interfere with the performance of each employee In
addition, a comfortable physical work environment and organizational culture
will provide encouragement to do a job seriously so that it can be done effectively
and efficiently.
According to
(Darmadi, 2020: 242), the work environment includes something that is around
employees so that it affects an individual in carrying out the obligations that
have been assigned to him, such as air conditioning, good lighting and others.
Meanwhile, organizational culture is the values and norms adopted and carried
out by an organization related to the environment in which the organization
carries out its activities (Sule &; Saefullah, 2019). If this is done, the
result will create competent and qualified employees who strengthen and
maintain the image of a company so that it will result in an effort to face
external challenges.
Prawirosentono in
(Sinambela, 2018) performance is a result of employee work that can be achieved
by a person or group of people in the organization, in accordance with their
respective authorities so that organizational goals can be achieved. Employee performance
is a good work performance in quantity and quality achieved from employees to
carry out their duties based on the responsibilities that have been applied by
the company (Sherlie &; Hikmah, 2020: 756). So, the achievement of employee
performance results is a benchmark for achieving or not achieving work
motivation, physical work environment and organizational culture as well as the
goals of a company.
The results
showed the results of employee performance achievements from PT Binajasa
Abadikarya Jakarta, in the table it can be seen from the average performance
achievements in 2019 to 2021. The company always tries to maximize employee
performance well so that the achievement of employee performance continues to
be stable, so that it can achieve the planned targets. Based on the background
and previous researchers related to the influence of work motivation, physical
work environment and organizational culture on employee performance, this study
takes the title "The Influence of
Work Motivation, Physical Work Environment and Organizational Culture on
Employee Performance of PT Binajasa Abadikaya Jakarta"
RESULTS
Validity is
the accuracy or accuracy of an instrument in measuring what it wants to measure.
In testing data collection instruments, validity can be divided into factor
validity and item validity. Factor validity is measured when items are arranged
using more than one factor (there are similarities between one factor and
another).
Item Number 
Variable 
Calculated r value 
Table r value 
Decision 
X1.1 
X1 Work Motivation 
0.477 
0,1305 
VALID 
X1.2 
0.365 
VALID 

X1.3 
0.366 
VALID 

X2.1 
X2 Physical Work Environment 
0.650 
0,1305 
VALID 
X2.2 
0.604 
VALID 

X2.3 
0.615 
VALID 

X2.4 
0.732 
VALID 

X2.5 
0.585 
VALID 

X2.6 
0.391 
VALID 

X3.1 
X3 Organizational Culture 
0.568 
0,1305 
VALID 
X3.2 
0.563 
VALID 

X3.3 
0.195 
VALID 

X3.4 
0.622 
VALID 

Y1.1 
Y Employee Performance 
0.549 
0,1305 
VALID 
Y1.2 
0.416 
VALID 

Y1.3 
0.267 
VALID 
Source : SPSS Version 25 Processing Results
Based on
table 1. Explaining that the validity test results for a research instrument
have a calculated r value > r table (0.1305). So it can be concluded that
all instruments in this study can be called valid
Reliability Test
The
multicollinearity test of data is used to determine the presence or absence of
deviations from the classical assumption of multicollinearity, namely the
existence of linear relationships between independent variables in regression
models. A prerequisite that must be met in a regression model is the absence of
multicollinearity.
Variable 
Cronbach's Alpha 
Conclusion 
Work Motivation (X1) 
0.557 
Reliable 
Physical Work Environment (X2) 
0.820 
Reliable 
Organizational Culture (X3) 
0.680 
Reliable 
Employee Performance (Y) 
0.595 
Reliable 
Source : SPSS Management Results Version 25
Based on
table 2, explains that the reliability test results with Cronbach's Alpha
values are shown at 0.557, 0.820, 0.680 and 0.595. So it can be concluded that
from this value the variables tested in the study are reliable.
The
normality test in the regression model is used to test whether the residual
values resulting from the regression are normally distributed or not. A good
regression model is one that has normally distributed residual values.
KolmogorovSmirnov 

Statistics Kolmogorov 
0,139 
Asymp. Sig 
0,000 
Source : SPSS version 25 Processing Results
Based on
table 3, it can be seen that the residual data of this study are not normally
distributed. After several times tested again in different ways, detecting with
outliners, transforming data, and adding the number of samples, the results
remained abnormal. So conclusions can be drawn according to the theory of
Central Limit Theorem in (Zulfikar &; Budiantara, 2015), which states
that data that has a sample of more than 30 is considered normal. So from these
results, it can proceed to the next test
The
multicollinearity test of data is used to determine the presence or absence of
deviations from the classical assumption of multicollinearity, namely the
existence of linear relationships between independent variables in regression
models. A prerequisite that must be met in a regression model is the absence of
multicollinearity.
Variable 
VIF value 
Work Motivation (X1) 
2,610 
Physical Work Environment (X2) 
2,844 
Organizational Culture (X3) 
2,686 
Source : SPSS version 25 Processing Results
Based on table 4.
The results of the Multicholinerity Test show the overall results of each variable
with a VIF value of < 5, so it is said that Multicholinerity does not occur.
Because generally if VIF > 5, then the variable has a multicollinearity
problem with other independent variables.
The heteroscedasticity
test is a test that assesses whether there is a variance inequality from the
residual for all observations on a linear regression model. This test is one of
the classical assumption tests that must be performed on linear regression
Variable 
Sig 
Conclusion 
Work Motivation (X1) 
0,23 
No Hesterocedacity 
Physical Work Environment (X2) 
0,011 
No Hesterocedacity 
Organizational Culture (X3) 
0,002 
Hesterocedacity occurs 
Source : SPSS version 25 Processing Results
1.
The significance value > 0.05, so the
conclusion is that there are no symptoms of Hesterocedacity
2.
The significance value < 0.05, so the
conclusion is that there is a hesterocedacity
It can be concluded that the variables are Work Motivation
and Physical Work Environment, this does not experience symptoms of
Hesterocedacity While this Organizational Culture variable occurs
Hesterokedacity. Try testing again using data transformation and the results
are as follows.
Variable 
Sig 
Conclusion 
Work Motivation (X1) 
0,012 
Not happen Hesterocedacity 
Physical Work Environment (X2) 
0,024 
Not happen Hesterocedacity 
Organizational Culture (X3) 
0,046 
Not happen Hesterocedacity 
Source : SPSS version 25 Processing Results
1. The
significance value > 0.05, so the conclusion is that there are no symptoms
of Hesterocedacity
2. The
significance value < 0.05, so the conclusion is that there is a
hesterocedacity
It can be concluded that the variables namely
Work Motivation, Physical Work Environment, and Organizational Culture do not
experience symptoms of Hesterocedacity
This
autocorrelation test is used to determine whether or not there are deviations
from the classical assumption of autocorrelation, namely the correlation that
occurs between residuals in one observation with other observations in
regression models.
R 
R Square 
Adjusted R Square 
Std. Error of the Estimate 
Durbin Watson 
.787a 
.619 
.611 
.964 
2.277 
Source : SPSS version 25 Processing Results
Based on table 7.
The results of the autocorrelation test, Durbin Watson obtained 2,277. Data
requirements so that it can be said that there is no DW > DU autocorrelation.
Based on the Durbin Watson DU table of 1.7668, it can be concluded that DW
2.277 > DU 1.7668 which means that no auto correlation occurs.
This
analysis is used to determine the effect between the independent variable on
the dependent variable whether each independent variable has a positive or
negative effect and to predict the value of the dependent variable if the value
of the independent variable increases or decreases
Variable 
Regression Coefficient 
Tcalculate 
Sig 
Constant 
2,558 


Work Motivation(X1) 
0,263 
4,027 
0,000 
Physical Work Environment (X2) 
0,066 
1,776 
0,078 
Organizational Culture (X3) 
0,319 
4,823 
0,000 
Fcalculate 
84,341 

0.000b 
R Square 
0,619 


Source : SPSS version 25 Processing Results
Based on
table 8, the multiple linear regression equation KR= (2.558) + 0.263MK +
0.066LKF + 0.319BO is obtained
Information:
KR : Employee
Performance
K : Constant
MK : Work Motivation
LK : Physical Work Environment BO :
Organizational Culture
From the regression model above, the
following conclusions can be drawn.
1. The
constant value has a positive value of 2.558. Which means that it shows a
unidirectional influence between the independent variable and the dependent
variable.
2. The
Work Motivation variable has a regression coefficient of 0.263 which means that
every time there is an increase in work motivation, the performance of PT
Binajasa Abadikarya employees will increase by 0.263
3. The
Physical Work Environment variable has a regression coefficient of 0.066 which
means that every time there is an increase in the physical work environment,
the performance of PT Binajasa Abadikarya employees will increase by 0.066
4. The
Organizational Culture variable has a regression coefficient of 0.319 which
means that every time there is an increase in organizational culture, the
performance of PT Binajasa Abadikarya employees will increase by 0.319
It can be concluded that all variables have a
positive value which means that they show a unidirectional influence between
the independent variable and the dependent variable.
The f test
serves to examine all independent variables that have an influence together on
the dependent variable. Test f in this study is used to test all independent
variables, namely work motivation, work environment, and organizational culture
against the dependent variable, namely employee performance
F 
Sig 
84.341 
0.000b 
Source : SPSS version 25 Processing Results
If the value of Sig. > 0.05 the declared
hypothesis is rejected
If the value of Sig. <0.05 the hypothesis
is declared accepted
Based on
table 9. test results f , obtained a Sig. value of 0.000^{b} . Because
the value of Sig. 0.000 < 0.05, according to the basis of decision making in
this f test, it can be concluded that this hypothesis is accepted, or in other
words the variables of work motivation, physical work environment and
organizational culture simultaneously affect the performance of employees of PT
Binajasa Abadikarya
This
coefficient of determination is used to examine how far the model is able to
explain the variation of the dependent variable. The value of the coefficient
of determination is between 0 and 100%. An R² value close to 100% indicates
that the independent variable provides almost all the information needed to
estimate the variation of the dependent variable and vice versa.
R 
RSquare 
.787a 
.619 
Source : SPSS 25 Processing Results
Based on
table 4.20 of the coefficient of determination, the RSquare value is 0.619 or
61.9%. This figure can be interpreted that the variables of work motivation,
physical work environment, and organizational culture can be explained by
employee performance by 61.9%. While the remaining 38.1% was explained by other
variables outside the variables studied.
Test t
In this
study, the t test serves to examine the presence or absence of a significant
influence of each independent variable, namely work motivation, physical work
environment, and organizational culture on the dependent variable, namely
employee performance. The t test can be measured using a significance value of
0.05
Variable 
T count 
Sig 
Work Motivation 
4,027 
0,000 
Physical Work Environment 
1,776 
0,078 
Organizational Culture 
4,832 
0,000 
Source : SPSS version 25 Processing Results
The results of each variable in table 10 can
be explained as follows:
1.
The Work Motivation variable has a
significant value of 0.000 which is smaller than the tolerable error limit of
5% (α = 0.05), then H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. It can be stated that Work Motivation has a positive and
significant effect on employee performance.
2.
The physical work environment variable has a
significant value of 0.078 which is greater than the tolerable error limit of
5% (α = 0.05), then H0 is accepted and H2 is rejected. It can be stated that
the physical work environment has no significant effect on employee
performance.
3.
The Organizational Culture variable has a
significant value of 0.000 which is smaller than the tolerable error limit of
5% (α = 0.05), then H0 is rejected and H3 is accepted. It can be stated that
Organizational Culture has a positive and significant effect on employee
performance.
Discussion
Based on the
results of the research conducted, it can show that work motivation has a
positive and significant effect on employee performance, then it can be stated
that work motivation variables affect employee performance. This can be shown
in the T Test, the work motivation variable has a significant value of 0.000
which is smaller than the tolerable error limit of 5% (α = 0.05), which shows
that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. So it can be interpreted that work
motivation in this company greatly affects the improvement of employee
performance
The
regression coefficient is standardized if the variable work motivation is one –
unit, then employee performance is 0.263 which means work motivation affects
employee performance. The results of this study show that work motivation has a
strong influence on employee performance, the importance of every company
providing work motivation to its employees both positive and negative
motivation, it will have a short and long term impact on the company in the
future. This is in line with the theory of work motivation is "A set of
forces either from within or from outside oneself that encourage to start
working according to a certain format, direction, intensity and time
period" (McClelland, translated Suwanto 2020: 161). The results of this
study support the results of previous research conducted by Putra, K. A.,
&; Wijaksana, T. I. (2022), Munarwisyah, I. (2018), and Nurjaya, N (2021)
which stated that work motivation has a positive and significant effect on
employee performance
Based on the
results of research conducted, it can show that the physical work environment
does not affect employee performance. This can be shown in the t test, the
physical work environment variable has a significant value of 0.078 which is
greater than the tolerable error limit of 5% (α = 0.05), which shows that H0 is
accepted and H2 is rejected. So it can be interpreted that the physical work
environment in this company does not affect the improvement of employee
performance. The regression coefficient is standardized if the physical work
environment variables are one – unit, then employee performance is 0.066 which
means that the physical work environment affects employee performance. There
are differences in ttest results and regression coefficients. This can be
concluded because the company that the author examined is an outsourcing
company where the placement of employees always moves according to applicable
regulations, not staying in the same and old environment. Basically, the
physical work environment remains influential but does not really affect the
level of performance of each individual employee. This is in line with the
theory according to (Sedarmayanti, 2017), the physical work environment is all
physical conditions around the workplace that can affect employees either
directly or indirectly.
The results
of this study support the results of previous research conducted by Wulan, W.
C. (2019) and Warongan, B.U., Dotulong, L. O., &; Lumintang, G.G. (2022)
which stated that the physical work environment has no effect on employee
performance. And contrary to previous research Yuliantari, K., &; Prasasti,
I. (2020) which stated that the physical work environment has a positive and
significant effect
Based on the
results of the research conducted, it can show that Organizational Culture has
a positive and significant effect on employee performance, then it can be
stated that the variable Organizational Culture affects employee performance.
This can be shown in the T Test, the work motivation variable has a significant
value of 0.000 which is smaller than the tolerable error limit of 5% (α =
0.05), which shows that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. So it can be
interpreted that the Organizational Culture in this company greatly affects the
improvement of employee performance. The regression coefficient is standardized
if the organizational culture variable is one – unit, then employee performance
is 0.319 which means organizational culture affects employee performance.
The results
of this study show that organizational culture is very influential on improving
employee performance. Where if the company develops a good organizational
culture, it will go down – decline in being run by employees to internal and
external companies. This will be an additional value where the company will be
considered to have good norms, rules and attitudes in the eyes of other
companies or externally, and gain a high sense of trust between fellow
employees or employees with superiors. This is in line with the theory
according to Sedarmayanti (2017: 99), organizational culture is a belief,
attitude and value that is generally owned, which arises in organizations, put
forward more simply, culture is the way we do things here. The results of this
study support the results of previous research conducted by Munarwisyah, I.
(2018), Rivai, A. (2020) and Hendra (2020) which stated that organizational
culture has a positive and significant effect on employee performance.
CONCLUSION
Based on the analysis and discussion of data regarding
"The Effect of Work Motivation, Physical Work Environment, and
Organizational Culture on Employee Performance of PT Binajasa Abadikarya
Jakarta," several conclusions can be drawn. First, Work Motivation has a
positive and significant influence on employee performance, showing that
employee motivation levels play an important role in improving their
performance in the company. Second, the Physical Work Environment does not have
a significant influence on employee performance, indicating that the physical
aspects of the work environment do not directly affect performance levels.
Third, Organizational Culture has a positive and significant influence on
employee performance, indicating that the implementation of norms, values, and
codes of ethics in organizational culture creates a bond of mutual trust
between employees and the company. Thus, companies need to pay attention to and
increase work motivation and strengthen organizational culture as a strategy to
improve employee performance.
This article is a
part of joint research and publication between Faculty of Economics and
Business, National University, Jakarta and Faculty of Business, Economics, and
Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu.
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Zahwa
Assabilliyah Saputri, Subur Karyatun, Kumba Digdowiseiso (2024) 
First publication rights: International Journal of Social Service and
Research (IJSSR) 
This article is licensed under: 