Intellectual Humility as A Predictor of Conflict Resolution in Government Policy Acceptance in the Situation of the Covid-19 Pandemic in Indonesia


Arlita Permanasari, Araminta Permatasari

Himpunan Psikologi Indonesia

*e-mail: [email protected]




Intellectual Humility, Conflict Resolution, Covid-19, Government Policy


The spread of Covid-19 in Indonesia shows a relatively high increase throughout the Pandemic. The government is trying to run various programs to break the chain of transmission of Covid-19, but the refusal of some people makes controlling the pandemic more difficult to achieve. The spread of hoax news and oppositional attitudes towards the government also influenced public rejection. This condition also increases the escalation of conflict between the government and some community groups. Proven in this study, intellectual humility correlates with the formation of conflict resolution, so it can be a good predictor in seeing public acceptance of government policies, especially related to the determination of interventions to groups that are not cooperative with Covid-19 response. This research is participatory, with a phenomenological framework whose data is converted into quantitative. Next, it is analyzed using parametric statistical calculations.








On March 2, 2020, the Indonesian government announced the first Covid-19 case found in Indonesia (Siregar et al., 2022). Since the announcement of the first case, the lifestyle of the Indonesian people began to change, adjusting to the applicable health rules and protocols (Mietzner, 2020). Covid-19 is new to the world, so the explanation and management in dealing with this condition are also still evolving.

Along with the increasing world understanding related to Covid-19, several protocols for preventing and handling transmission have also become more advanced. Despite this, not everyone believes the results of the study. Some actually believe more hoax information and conspiracy theories. François (Huerta, 1990)in his research said that the spread of hoaxes in the community related to Covid-19 is an obstacle in the process of preventing and handling the pandemic. Furthermore, Chrystiani Judita (2020) explained that although public knowledge (based on research respondents) may be quite adequate regarding (Huerta, 1990)hoaxes, most of them feel doubtful so that there is a possibility of believing these hoaxes.

Hoaxes that develop in the community can also be an obstacle in the implementation of government policies to break the chain of spread of Covid-19(Yunus & Rezki, 2022). From the results of initial interviews in the pilot study, some respondents believed hoaxes about handling Covid-19 which then had an impact on the emergence of negative perceptions about the government(Kim & Kim, 2021). Research respondents saw that there were conflicts between the government and community groups, especially those who were opposed to government policies during the pandemic.

In general, respondents to the pilot study who assessed that conflicts between governments can only be resolved if the government meets all the needs of its people, has relatively low intellectual humility(Wu et al., 2016). The pattern obtained from the pilot study showed that some of the respondents who ignored health protocols were not critical enough to assess problems and were less effective in conflict resolution.

Departing from these conditions, this study was conducted to see the correlation between intellectual humility and the ability to build conflict resolution in the acceptance of government policies during the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia(Ghifariz & Ahmadi, 2021). It is hoped that the results of this study will be able to describe how intellectual humility can be a predictor of conflict resolution that can be used to determine strategies, interventions and education to the community if they return to face analogous situations in the future. The results of this study are expected not only to be utilized in the Covid-19 pandemic situation, but also to escort other policies from the government related to force majeure conditions.

Intellectual humility is a cluster of strong behaviors, directed at a person's cognitive abilities and their components.  One of the basic components of intellectual humility is cognition and affection which provide knowledge and respect functions for values(Lumpkin & Achen, 2018).said that intellectual humility consists of two interrelated parts, namely intellectual self-acceptance related to epistemic boundaries and intellectual modesty regarding epistemic success(Ballantyne, 2021).

Intellectual modesty is a dimension that focuses on epistemic success, where it can be reflected in the emergence of attitudes and desires to cooperate, willingness to do unpopular things when necessary, respect the views of others, and have concern for collective achievement. In addition, this dimension is also shown by the appreciation of cognitive aspects displayed through praise and other forms of affection towards others who contribute knowledge.

Intellectual self-acceptance can be seen from a person's ability to recognize his mistakes or weaknesses, and not deny them(Praptomojati & Subandi, 2020). Thus, if a person has intellectual humility then he is able to accept criticism with a calm attitude and not feel offended by it. This condition encourages him to become a person who is more open to various kinds of knowledge and has a broad tolerance for differences. To reach that level, one needs to have a deep awareness of oneself.

Conflict resolution is a common intellectual framework for understanding what happens within a conflict and how to intervene within it. In addition, understanding and intervening in a particular conflict requires special knowledge of the parties to the conflict, their social context, their aspirations, their conflict orientation, social norms, and so on. In an effort to resolve conflicts, constructive resolutions are needed(Deutsch, Coleman, & Marcus, 2016).

Fisher et al (2001) explain that conflict resolution is an effort to deal with the causes of conflict and try to build new relationships that can last a long time between opposing groups. While Ralf (Dahrendorf, 1958) explained there are 3 forms of conflict resolution. First, Conciliation, which is conflict control by means of all parties involved discussing in order to reach an agreement without any third party forcing or monopolizing talks. The second, Mediation, which is a conflict control effort that uses third parties such as experts or experts, institutions, figures as mediators, who give advice or advice, but not decision makers. The third, Arbitration, which is conflict resolution where both parties agree to obtain a final legal decision from the arbitrator as a way out to resolve the conflict.



This study was conducted using phenomenological methods. The general focus of this research is to examine/examine the essence or structure of experience into human consciousness (Tuffour, 2017). According to (Alase, 2017).phenomenology is a qualitative methodology that allows researchers to apply and apply their subjectivity and interpersonal abilities in the exploratory research process.

The research was conducted by compiling measuring instruments in the form of interview guides, assessment dictionaries for the dimensions of intellectual humility and conflict resolution, and research graphics. Respondents were selected using the purposive sampling method, with the following categories: not including health workers, living in areas with the spread of Covid-19 at least red zones, willing to participate in data collection in the form of discussions and interviews.

There were 33 respondents, all of whom entered the qualifications needed in the study(Casey, Fink, Krugman, & Propst, 2004). Each respondent attended an interview session with about 20-30 minutes per person conducted directly by the researcher. Stage one is the collection of respondents' identities and screening compliance with health protocols. Respondents who comply with health protocols are included in group A and those who do not comply are included in group B. Stage two is the provision of TREATMENT ONE where respondents are asked to observe four pieces of news about Covid-19 in Indonesia to see how the level of intellectual humility. Two of the four pieces of news given were hoaxes. Respondents were then asked to answer a number of questions derived from deepening the four aspects of intellectual modesty and four aspects of intellectual self-acceptance. Also highlighted in this stage is the measurement of respondents' level of trust in hoax news and accurate news. Then enter stage three, where respondents are given two pieces of news regarding government policies related to handling the pandemic which are criticized by the public. This stage is intended to see whether respondents assess the conflict between the government and some Indonesian people, and how they think and engage personally to carry out conflict resolution.

After completing the data collection, the next step is to give a value weighting to the answer responses from each respondent, according to the answer dictionary compiled based on theory. In other words, this process is a quantification of the results of qualitative deepening. The results were then statistically processed using bivariate analysis.



The reliability level of this research instrument is 0.963. The value is above the threshold set by calculations using Crobach's Alpha, because the assessment is polycotomus. The reliability of the items in this study also has excellent reliability and item correlation assessment, with details as shown in the following table:

Tabel 1. Reliabilitas Per Aitem

Instrument validity tests using Chi-square and CFI show that this research model is appropriate and has excellent validity values. Where the Chi-square value is above 0.05 and the CFI is above 0.90..

      Table 2. Chi-square calculation results Table






Table 3. Other model fit measurement results








The data taken using the instrument shows a normal distribution and can be proceeded into parametric analysis. There is no deviant data so descriptively 33 respondents produce valid data.


Tabel 4.Statistical Descriptive Results














Figure 2. Blot Plots Data Dissemination Research Variables

Table 5. Assumption Checking Results






The results of statistical calculations illustrate that between the intellectual humility variable and the conflict resolution variable, there is a very high correlation using both Pearson and Spearman calculations. The apparent correlation is a positive correlation, where when the intellectual humility variable increases, the conflict resolution variable also increases. Thus, Ha is acceptable and H0 is rejected.

Table 6. Correlation of Intellectual Humility Variables with Conflict Resolution

















Figure 3. Correlation Diagram of Intellectual Humility Variables with Conflict Resolution

After looking at the results of statistical calculations in general, the following is presented comparative data from a number of aspects of the respondent group, ranging from compliance with health protocols during the pandemic, gender, education level, and field of work. To see in comparison whether there are flashy things.

Table 7. Correlation of research variables in group A




Table 7. Correlation of research variables in group B












Figure 4. Group A Correlation Diagram          Figure 5. Group B Correlation Diagram

The results above illustrate that the correlation between intellectual humility variables and conflict resolution is very strong in group A, namely the group of respondents who comply with health protocols during the Covid-19 pandemic. Based on supplementary data on the level of trust in hoax news, group B, namely the group of respondents who did not comply with health protocols, had a higher score with an average comparison in table 8. Group A numbered 19 people and group B numbered 14 people.


Table 8. Average Trust Score of Group A and B Respondents to News


Average News Trust Score

Hoax News

Hoax News







Group A has a higher trust score for accurate news and is less likely to believe in issues without a clear and accountable basis. Meanwhile, group B is easier to believe unfounded hoax news, making it difficult to show relevant conflict resolution..

Table 9. Correlation of research variables in the group of male respondents




Table 10. Correlation of Research Variables in Female Respondent Groups












Figure 4. Male Correlation Diagram                    Figure 5. Women’s Correlation Diagram

There was a slight difference in scores from the calculation of correlation between variables using Pearson in female respondents (totaling 11 people) and male respondents (totaling 22 people), where the correlation was higher in the male group. Data shows that in general, the level of trust in news, both hoaxes and accurate news, is higher shown by the female respondent group.

Table 11. Average Male and Female Respondents' Trust Score on News


Average News Trust Score

Hoax News

Accurate News








Based on the data from the study, there was no significant correlation difference between the respondent group with a minimum education level of S1 and the group of respondents with an education level below S1. Furthermore, respondents who work in the formal sector show a higher correlation between research variables compared to respondents who work in the informal sector. Respondents from the formal sector amounted to 20 people, while from the informal sector amounted to 13 people.

Table 12. Correlation of research variables in groups of respondents from the formal sector





Table 13. Correlation of research variables in groups of respondents from the informal sector





What is typical in this area is that news trust scores, both hoax and accurate news, appear higher in the group of respondents from the formal work sector. With the following details:

Table 14. Average Formal and Informal Sector Respondents' Trust Score on News


Average News Trust Score

Hoax News


Accurate News








There is a difference in correlation between the unmarried respondent group and the married respondent group, where the unmarried respondent group (the number of respondents 20 people) has a higher correlation between research variables compared to the married respondent group (the number of respondents 13 people). In addition, it can be observed that the level of trust of the married group of respondents towards accurate news is much higher compared to the group of unmarried respondents.

Table 15. Correlation of Research Variables in the Married Respondent Group





Table 16. Correlation of Research Variables in Unmarried Respondent Groups







Figure 4. Correlation Diagram - Married           Figure 5. Correlation Diagram - Unmarried


Table 15. Average Trust Score of Married and Unmarried Respondents Against News

Average News Trust Score Group

Hoax News Accurate News

Married 5,923 9.0

Unmarried 4.2 6.2



Based on the statistics of the research results, it can be seen that the research instrument has very high validity and reliability, so it can be said that this instrument has a good ability to take data from respondents accurately according to the variables studied. Although in limited quantities, the diversity of representatives of the region can provide richer information.

The data in this study show peculiarities and interactions that correspond to the alternative hypotheses of the study (Ha). It can be described as follows:


1.     The group of respondents who did not comply with health protocols (Group B) described low intellectual humility. Therefore, it can be said that this group lacks openness in assessing a problem and tends to stick to only one approach. Without this openness, someone will see more problems from a negative perspective and not explore various possibilities that can be used as solutions or new perspectives in thinking. This correlates with their ability to devise appropriate conflict resolution. For example, Group B tends to be limited in presenting arguments when formulating strategic solutions. Furthermore, many of these groups demand that the government meet the various needs of the community without proposing what contributions can be made individually or in groups to help resolve existing conflicts. In contrast, Group A shows openness to thoughts that do not conform to their point of view. Respondents from group A can appreciate and appreciate the efforts made by others in the form of conflict resolution. This openness helps to get more points of view so that the analysis that is then compiled becomes sharper, more structured and relevant to the existing conflict. Evidently, group A showed a good ability to carry out conflict resolution and displayed positive support.

2.     Intellectual humility and conflict resolution potential are not related to Education level. In her research, Alessandra(Tanesini, 2018).said that intellectual humility is an attitude, so it is not always directly proportional to the level of intelligence and education of a person. This is also related to affection, so that both the process of failure and the success of conflict handling can still be seen as a learning. This explanation is in line with the results of the study, where the group of respondents with S1 education or above and respondents with S1 education or below did not show significant differences in the correlation between variables.

3.     Data on respondents show that conflict resolution is higher in groups working in the formal sector. Further research is needed to explain this phenomenon, but from the analysis of research data, it can be assumed that this condition occurs because in general formal sector workers are often required to express critical, structured, and accountable thinking in public. Furthermore, critical thinking generally develops more cognition skills than emotions, so this group does not easily trust the information presented to them. Groups with critical thinking are also able to display a more ignorant attitude towards news that is considered irrelevant to their knowledge development needs.

4.     A high level of confidence in the news can reduce individual efforts in further researching each phenomenon that occurs. A condition that has the potential to emerge from this context is the tendency to use logic and personal judgment more in assessing the validity of information than comprehensive fact-finding through various sources. As a result, the conflict resolution raised is not optimal and has not reached a strategic stage. In addition, problem weighting also tends not to be done independently, but relies on personal experience and information heard from the immediate environment

5.     News trust scores are higher in impressionable groups. Context is easily influenced in this case relative to the respective mode of thinking. But in general, this group will receive news and be believed to be the truth if it is conveyed by parties who have the same mindset, figures who become role models, news channels that have a high reputation, or by groups with similar interests.

6.     Intellectual humility can serve as a predictor of conflict resolution in public acceptance of government policies carried out by certain methods. For example, if policy socialization is delivered in the same way across social media channels, certain groups may respond positively and others may respond negatively. Judging from this study, each group of respondents has different abilities in processing problems and following up in the form of conflict resolution. For example, groups that disobey health procedures have a smaller probability of openly accepting government policies and thus the tendency is to reject and take an oppositional stance. On this basis, more specific patterns of approach can be determined that can encourage openness to help people see a problem with a more open mind.



This study illustrates the acceptance of Ha. There is a high positive correlation between intellectual humility and conflict resolution. This illustrates that a person's openness in thinking, appreciating the contributions of others, and awareness of his potential and weaknesses will affect how the individual understands the problems that occur around him. Individuals with good intellectual humility are able to develop strategic and effective conflict resolution. Therefore, intellectual humility can be a good predictor of conflict resolution, especially with regard to the acceptance of government policies in critical situations, in this context the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia.

This study has a limited number of samples and has not been spread with an even percentage throughout Indonesia. Therefore, the results of this study cannot be used as a description of psychological aspects in certain regions, but rather a general study of the psychological aspects of respondents in Indonesia.

This study used an interview method conducted 20-30 minutes per respondent. This model requires a very long total research time and there needs to be a team trained according to the needs of the instrument. To reduce the potential for bias, the researchers themselves conduct data collection. However, this is difficult to do with a large number of samples.

Research can be supplemented by providing other instruments such as questionnaires separately, regarding intellectual humility variables and conflict resolution, as comparative data from data that have been taken through participatory methods. With this model, it is expected that the correlation that occurs between variables can be explained more specifically.

This study reduces the theory of each variable into operational form, but has not detailed the limitations calculated in the form of calculations in each aspect. For this reason, further research and research development are needed to see the qualifications of a firm score level from each aspect of research.

It is necessary to develop research on other conditions that also involve public acceptance of government policies and regulations, in order to see the use of understanding of the interaction between intellectual humility and conflict resolution in supporting the implementation of government policies in force majeure conditions.



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