Work Life Balance among Female School Teachers Delivering Online Curriculum in Bandgaon Block During COVID-19: An Empirical Study


Jayant Kumar Sahoo1, Vijay Prakash2

Kolhan University, Chaibasa, India1 LBSM College, Karandih, India2

Email: [email protected]

Article Information



Received: 29 March 2023

Revised: April 12, 2023

Approved: April 14, 2023

Online: April 16, 2023


Work life balance today, in particular in instances of COVID the place home and work place have transgressed boundaries is an indispensable precursor for the well-being of an individual. Increased female employment has led to a swelling interest from academia and industry on WLB. With higher access to better educational opportunities, growing number of female are coming into the workforce, and moving from being home-makers to the geared up work force, thereby necessitating an urgent need to observe this phenomenon. Carrying on with on line lessons remotely has grown to be the order of the day, and it is turning into worrying when each school and personal life operate from the same space. The predominant idea here is to recognize challenges at some point of COVID which are being confronted with the aid of school teachers in Bandgaon block delivering content to students from home and their surviving strategies. A combination of 150 fermale teachers’ responses are covered in the study. Average literacy rate of Bandgaon Block in 2011 had been 54.46 in which, man and female literacy had been 69.02 and 39.95 respectively. Total literate in Bandgaon Block have been 805 of which man and woman have been 547 an 258 respectively. This study also identifies primary problems and challenges which confronted by unwedded and wedded working female in Covid-19. Both Telephonic and Online interview are taken to fulfill the objectives. Random sampling technique used to be used for collection of primary data through Telephinic and Online interviews.



Work life Balance; Online curriculum; COVID-19; Stress; Challenges during COVID-19




Education offerings – a phase of the tertiary region contains specialised establishments that offers systematic education and training in a different areas/subjects main to human development.' Or in a layman’s language, the education sector consists of things to do where people impart knowledge/skills and stimulate thinking of younger cohorts for their growth and overall development.

The 2019 Union Budget for India earmarked ₹ 94,853 crore for education, out of which ₹56,536 crore was for school education. With about 28.1 per cent of India’s population in the age group of 0–14 years, the educational sector here provides great growth opportunity (IBEF, 2019). In the carrier sector, female are frequently searching for employment in jobs such as teaching and nursing. Women teachers are female whose professional activity is student instruction, involving the delivery of lessons to students (Ramos et al., 2020). Recent information from OECD countries show large percentage of female in teaching. This represents a massive distortion in this specific labour market. It is interesting to word that the determined awareness of females in this sector is due to the high opportunity value faced by men in educating vis-à-vis different professions. Culture too has an essential role to attribute towards gender differences to occupational preferences. In many countries, along with developed ones, educating has been seemed upon as a relatively low-status profession, with the important positions being occupied by men. Women still should undergo most of the child rearing responsibilities, and teaching appears to be one of the most agreeable professions for this demographic segment despite the low wages. Average literacy rate of Bandgaon Block in 2011 had been 54.46 in which, manly and womanish literacy were 69.02 and 39.95 respectively. Total literate in Bandgaon Block had been 805 of which manly and womanish were,547 and,258 independently.

Pass chance for Matriculation examination in the past 5 years for the total bandgaon block is as follows 2022-58.63%; 2021 –72.27%; 2020 –69.99%; 2019 –66.0%; 2018 –60.46%. Looking at the Block-wise Percentage Distribution of Workers [Females] in accordance to Broad Employment Status-2011–12, Teaching over the last few decades, however, has become a challenging arena, whereby with the introduction of new guides and educating pedagogy, as well as shift towards upgrading curriculum, is demanding more time beyond everyday working hours to be committed to the profession. This has particularly become more challenging as with the COVID pandemic, the mode of delivering content being online. Online teaching, meetings, professional development programmes, growing new resources for the new normal seems to have brought added anxiety and workload among women.

Looking at the Block-wise Percentage Distribution of Workers [Females] in accordance to Broad Employment Status-2011–12, Teaching over the closing few decades, however, has emerge as a difficult arena, whereby with the introduction of new guides and educating pedagogy, as well as shift towards upgrading curriculum, is demanding more time beyond normal working hours to be devoted to the profession. This has specifically become more difficult as with the COVID pandemic, the mode of delivering content being online. Online teaching, meetings, professional improvement programmes, growing new assets for the new normal appears to have delivered brought anxiety and workload among women. Owing to the large-scale reverse migration in India, the home help easily available for family chores is also not there, including to their burden of unpaid chores. A study on the Impact of the Pandemic on women’s burden of unpaid work in India (Chauhan, 2021). The lockdown has widened the present gender inequalities with limited opportunities for female for leisure, and situation them to time poverty.

What is also a matter of concern is that India’s female Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) has fallen abysmally low to 23.3% in 2017–18, meaning that for every three out of four female over the age of 15 in India, are neither working nor seeking work (Ministry of Finance, n.d.). Will a similar sample emerge in the schooling sector also, and is the COVID pandemic an vital motive in the back of it? The goal of the paper is to in particular learn about whether or not this terrible style of falling labour participation among female teachers throughout Covid-19 is due to rising expectations of a work culture being on hand 24 × 7 due to digital conferences scheduled anytime, resource development for on-line educating etc. and thereby making female teachers unable to assimilate work and life in ways that balance work, home, society, and self?

Work–life balance as described in the paper would mean retaining an ideal balance between ‘work’ (career and work goals) and ‘personal way of life’ (fitness, pleasure, rest, religious aspirations, and family). The term ‘ideal’ is subjective here and differs for each and every individual. This does not translate into devoting an equal number of hours for both these aspects of life. Individual work-life balance will vary over time. The jointly published ILO-Euro found report, ‘Working anytime, anywhere: The effects on the world of Work’ has studied how developing use of digital technologies for working from home potentially result in longer working hour and higher work intensity (Labour, 2017) resulting in adversely impacting this balance.

Work-Life Balance is aptly defined as: ‘WLB is about human beings having a measure of control over when, where and how they work. It is achieved when an individual’s proper to a fulfilled life inside and outside paid work is accepted and respected as the norm, to the mutual benefit of the individual, business and society’ (Jones et al., 2013).

WLB, thus is described as an ‘individual’s ability, irrespective of age and gender, to find a life rhythm that approves individuals to combine their work with other responsibilities, things to do or aspirations’ (Felstead et al., 2002).

The primary focus of WLB policies need to be to permit personnel improve their quality of life by spending more time for different kinds of hobbies, leisure, training courses, social commitments (Hughes & Bozionelos, 2007).

Past research has shown that flexible work measures enable human beings to assimilate each work and family responsibilities and are strongly influential in bringing about a healthy work and life balance. The balance, however, toppled with the pandemic (Galinsky et al., 1993).

In April 2020, a United Nations report revealed that unpaid care work had increased with the pandemic, with children at home, heightened care needs of older persons, and over-pressured health services (Rawal, 2023).

The pandemic has also been instrumental in worsening gender roles, which has metamorphosed into evident inequalities. The closure of schools and day care centres for children has introduced out the delicateness of women’s participation in the paid economy, whereby ‘school closures and family isolation are moving the work of caring for children from the paid economy – nurseries, schools, babysitters – to the unpaid one.

The importance of family help as a positive factor influencing work life balance is also emerging from literature review (Ferguson et al., 2012).

Social assist which includes family friendly policies, the work culture, support from extended family and friends does have a very significant have an impact on on harmonizing the work life balance of women (Feeney & Stritch, 2019).

Indian social set up is quite demanding in this component which requires women, especially staying in the traditional joint family system are accountable to take care of their getting old parents as properly as aged relatives (Budhwar et al., 2005).

Thomas and Ganster (Thomas, 1995) stated that individuals who used flexible work practices had more control over managing work and family needs and also resulted in a a lot higher professional and personal satisfaction.

Women mostly lodge to adaptive strategies which are nothing however methods that people lodge to so as to address everyday challenges to cope with exacting circumstances. Caring obligations alongside with multiplied work burden will over time reduce efficiency at work which will mean female are more likely to be furloughed or overlooked for advertising that would adversely affect their career trajectory (BBC, 2020).

Statement of Problem of study till date, no research has been carried out on the work-life balance of woman teachers in Government and private schools in Bandgaon block. It is possible that due to low pay and excessive demand on overall performance woman teachers are experiencing excessive WLC that is adversely impacting their overall performance at work and at home. Therefore, it is essential to find out if tremendous WLC exists amongst female teachers of Government and private schools. The lack of regulations in terms of monthly remuneration of private women teachers is a urgent issue. It is possible that private women teachers incomes lesser than their counterparts experience Work Life Conflict (Bell et al., 2012). If the cause of Work Life Conflict is low earnings then it potential it can be remediated through increasing pay. Therefore, it is important to find out if higher income would lead to better work-life balance.

Working ladies of Private school  sector consists of working hours, overtimes, traveling from their houses to schools campuses, bad attitudes from their families, negative attitudes from their bosses, additionally family works and loss of working agenda (Guest, 1987).

All in this busy and difficult situation, female Government and private School teachers experience very stress in their personal and professional life. I have moreover Observed that Female health trouble are primary troubles for female Teachers during covid-19.

The current study on work-life balance amongst female government and Private School teachers in Bandgaon block in west singhbhum district of Jharkhand attempts to check out the factors of stress at home, at the place of work and in the society as a entire and work-life balance among female teachers during Covid-19.

Significance of the study in the study are Bandgaon is a Place the place the ‘culture’ factor of the society plays a primary position in the life of an individual. It is considered a duty for the people to participate in the society and this has added awesome imbalances between work and an individual’s life. It is the practice of the people to socialize in concord and is said to bring a experience of integration between the people in the society. Bandgaon is known for its low literacy price and however has given most interest in education this has Some Government and private schools being established in the block. It is estimated that there are eighty Government and private schools in the rural location of Bangaon block and Some Private schools   do not obtain any type of assist from the government. These schools are usually financed by using revenues from school fees and School run by using these fees. The main intention of the study is to discover the Work life balance among female school teachers delivering online curriculum in Bandgaon block during COVID-19.

Moreover the Research Objectives of the study are; (1) find out decisive factors affecting work-life balance faced by female schoolteachers  due to shift to online content delivery during pandemic, (2) to explore the linkages in the work life balance of female school teachers of Bandgaon block, with respect to demographic factors such as age, marital status, schooling level, work experience and income, (3) study and analyse the relationship between job satisfaction and work life balance of female school teachers during the COVID pandemic as teaching shifts to remote content delivery, and (4) explore factors which would assist create smoother balance of work and family commitment among female school teachers during the Covid.


Random sampling approach used to be used for collection of primary data through Telephonic and Online interviews. A structured questionnaire using the non-probability convenience sampling method was used for a sample size of 150 female teachers at K-12 levels [primary, middle, and senior school]. This helped with rapid and easy decoding and evaluation of responses, although it restricted qualitative responses from the respondents (Creswell, 2017). Telephonic as well as online interviews were conducted for primary data collection as movement was limited due to COVID. During the interviews, effort was made to ensure that the respondents talk about decisions referring to to their careers, the foremost choices and compromises they are making while working from home in an online mode. For data collection, a primary survey questionnaire of 150 respondents used to be carried out in Bandgaon Block,west singhbhum district of Jharkhand where many K-12 schools both private and Government run are located. This covered working female with a minimum of one-year experience, so that the respondents would have developed an perception of the issues affecting the balance between work and family life. Univariate data analysis is used to study demographic summary of the sample. This helps understand the demographics easily, as the technique only helps summarize the data and find patterns. The questionnaire is a mix of both closed and open-ended questions and divided into three distinct parts. The first part investigates demographic records of the sample which include particulars about age, marital status, education, profits and dependents in the family. Thereafter, factors affecting the work-life appraisal is studied. A five-point Likert scale was once used – 5 is assigned for ‘Highly Satisfied’, and 1 for ‘Highly Dissatisfied’ to collect responses on factors affecting work-life balance. The third part research the factors on family lifestyle, which mainly offers with questions associated to the personal way of life of the respondents. The study of Total Population of Govt and Private School teachers are 240 in which female teacher are 150. The population of the study is confined only to the rural areas of Bandgaon block. After identifying the total number of Govt and Private schools in Bandgaon block for the telephonic and online interview 63% female teacher from the total number of Government and Private  schools teacher were selected.  63 % female teachers were identified from each school to answer the questions.


Only completely filled-up questionnaires were considered for data analysis. SPSS data analysis software will be used.  For the analysis of the questionnaire statistical tools such as the use of basic mean, standard deviation, t- test, regression analysis, ANOVA, Z test and Chi-square (X2) test will be used for the purpose of the present study.

A few suggestions that would help female in schooling sector to attain a healthier balance are as follows.

Targeted counselling programs on work life balance can be conducted through the School, along with well-designed obvious and flexible working hours. The increased attention paid by Schools in recent times to integrate the new definition of work into other life domains is a positive indication for working women.

Policies are of value only when they are implemented, for example there can be an option of conducting classes with flexible times if required due to some family emergency. In normal times, the employee would have taken leave, however currently, when working from home – the teacher should be allowed to use technology flexibly such that it enables this option to a large extent. During the survey, it was realized that many working females were considering taking career breaks if they don’t have any option for taking care of their children. Increased empathy towards teachers with small children and who do not get adequate family support would help during these challenging times. For female employees, it turns into very essential that they want to set priorities for their work. Setting priorities allows one to schedule their duties over a reasonable period. Organizations also need to be clear how working hours, output and objectives will be monitored, specifically when everyone is going through increased mental stress. It should consider the apprehension expressed by female employees, as well as also make sure that workload issues are resolved, and realistic objectives set. A personal feedback from employees about their requirements can make the environment much more comfortable and reduce job-burnout. School management should re-survey and make any adjustments that are necessary in the policies and should include any perceptible changes in the behavior of their employees.



This paper research the influence of COVID-19 on the work-life disequilibrium created among female school teachers, which raises questions on gender equality due to the increased burden of unpaid work for women. It also highlights the fact that this improved burden of being available on the job 24X7, along with lack of family support for the extra burden is one of the reasons for female exiting the workforce.

To conclude work-life balance are two facets of coin, and it is not possible to separate them. Women anticipate some displeasure when the everyday set-up shifts trajectory; however, the individuals in the survey unanimously agreed that the pandemic has thrown open surprising challenges in phrases of a steep learning curve to accommodate online tools to deliver content. The next few months preserve a lot of uncertainty, and gender roles want to get redefined to accept the new normal. Family participants had been accepting these changes and supporting in preserving work-life balance to a certain extent. In India, the philosophy of collective family life along with the penetration of western culture creates conflict. Family relationships are generally given more priority than individual personal interests, which has also turned out to be one of the most essential factors for helping female control a balance in their career and personal lives. Respondents expressed that they definitely had to schedule their daily work activities in order to fulfil their work and family responsibilities, however the existence of support from spouse/family used to be one of the very important factors enabling them to keep their work-life balance during COVID-19.    



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